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Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "comment faire" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "je veux faire" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für faire im Französisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: faire, Dieu a fait le monde en six jours, le bébé fait ses dents, faire un enfant à.

The platform also offers insights from experts, access to tools, and voices from workers and local stakeholders.

The Factory Guide is an accessible and attractive online training tool for factory managers. The guide explains how labour standards work in practice and what to expect from FWF audits.

Graphics, videos and quizzes add a fun factor to serious matters. Fair Wear is not active in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The predominant part of the apparel producing companies in Bulgaria China is, still, the largest exporter of garment products.

FWF began working in Macedonia in The garment industry is a v While Myanmar has demonstrated significant progress on civil and po FWF is not active in Pakistan.

This means that members This means that membe The textile and garment industry is one of the most important secto Turkey is the fifth biggest supplier country for FWF members.

In Fair Wear Foundation had 29 member companies sourcing from In order to offer you the best website experience possible, this site places cookies on your computer.

Read our privacy policy for more information. Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek stated that a freely competitive, laissez-faire banking industry tends to be endogenously destabilizing and pro-cyclical.

He stated that the need for central banking control was inescapable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Capitalism Concepts.

Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Exploitation Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy.

Common property Private Public Voluntary. Collective ownership Commons Private ownership Public ownership Social ownership. Keynes, , "The End of Laissez Faire".

Jannet, Tome V, p. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade Exoticism and the Ancien Regime. Laissez Faire and the General-Welfare State.

The University of Michigan Press, A Political Economy of Lebanon — The Limits of Laissez-faire. Economic Forces in Modern Capitalism".

Convergence of Economic, Energy, and Environmental Forces. They are a sort of enlarged monopolies, and may frequently, for ages together, and in whole classes of employments, keep up the market price of particular commodities above the natural price, and maintain both the wages of the labour and the profits of the stock employed about them somewhat above their natural rate.

Measuring, Guarding and Gathering It". Retrieved 9 December Journal of Political Economy. Ideology and relief in Chpt.

The Great Irish Famine. On Fairness and Efficiency. The Policy Press, The Great Hunger in Ireland. The Search for an Oil Policy".

Journal of the Early Republic. Trade Protection for Autos and Steel". Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Vol.

Trade Policy in Historical Perspective". Political Science Quarterly, Vol. The Unknown Ideal, Ch. Scott; Green, Kesten C. Journal of Business Research.

Strategic Thinking in Marketing. The Contradictory Character of Globalisation. Retrieved 9 February Theoretical Foundations of the Contemporary Attack on Government.

Secondly, the world trade practices that currently exist promote the unequal distribution of wealth between nations. Lastly, buying products from producers in developing countries at a fair price is a more efficient way of promoting sustainable development than traditional charity and aid.

Fair trade labelling organizations commonly use a definition of fair trade developed by FINE , an informal association of four international fair trade networks: Specifically, fair trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency , and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.

Fair trade organizations, backed by consumers, are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising , and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade.

Additionally, Fair Trade USA , formerly a licensing agency for the Fairtrade International label, broke from the system and is implementing its own fair trade labelling scheme, which has resulted in controversy due to its inclusion of independent smallholders and estates for all crops.

The fair trade movement is popular in the UK, where there are Fairtrade towns, universities, over 6, churches, and over 4, UK schools registered in the Fairtrade Schools Scheme.

Some criticisms have been raised about fair trade systems. One study in a journal published by the MIT Press concluded that producer benefits were close to zero because there was an oversupply of certification, and only a fraction of produce classified as fair trade was actually sold on fair trade markets, just enough to recoup the costs of certification.

Some suppliers use relationships started in a fair trade system to autonomously springboard into direct sales relationships they negotiate themselves, whereas other direct trade systems are supplier-initiated for social responsibility reasons similar to a fair trade system.

There are a large number of fair trade and ethical marketing organizations employing different marketing strategies. Packers and retailers can charge as much as they want for the coffee.

The coffee has to come from a certified fair trade cooperative, and there is a minimum price when the world market is oversupplied.

Additionally, the cooperatives are paid an additional 10c per lb premium by buyers for community development projects.

Some go to meeting the costs of conformity and certification: Some meet other costs. Some is spent on social projects such as building schools, health clinics and baseball pitches.

Sometimes there is money left over for the farmers. The cooperatives sometimes pay farmers a higher price than farmers do, sometimes less, but there is no evidence on which is more common.

The marketing system for fair trade and non-fair trade coffee is identical in the consuming countries, using mostly the same importing, packing, distributing and retailing firms.

Some independent brands operate a "virtual company", paying importers, packers and distributors and advertising agencies to handle their brand, for cost reasons.

To become certified fair trade producers, the primary cooperative and its member farmers must operate to certain political standards, imposed from Europe.

There remain many fair trade organizations that adhere more or less to the original objectives of fair trade, and that market products through alternative channels where possible, and market through specialist fair trade shops, but they have a small proportion of the total market.

Fair trade is benefiting farmers in developing countries, whether that be considerably or just a little. The nature of fair trade makes it a global phenomenon, therefore, there are diverse motives for understanding group formation related to fair trade.

The social transformation caused by the fair trade movement also varies around the world. A study of coffee growers in [Guatemala illustrates the effect of fair trade practices on growers.

In this study, thirty-four farmers were interviewed. Of those thirty-four growers, twenty-two had an understanding of fair trade based on internationally recognized definitions, for example, describing fair trade in market and economical terms or knowing what the social premium is and how their cooperative has used it.

Three growers explained a deep understanding of fair trade, showing a knowledge of both fair market principles and how fair trade affects them socially.

Nine growers had erroneous or no knowledge of Fair Trade. These farmers did not have a pattern in terms of years of education, age, or years of membership in the cooperative; their answers to the questions, "Why did you join?

These farmers cited switching to organic farming, wanting to raise money for social projects, and more training offered as reasons for joining the cooperative, other than receiving a better price for their coffee.

Many farmers around the world are unaware of fair trade practices that they could be implementing to earn a higher wage. They could, however, identify fair trade based on some of its possible benefits to their community.

When asked, overall, farmers cited that fair trade has had a positive effect on their lives and communities. They also wanted consumers to know that fair trade is important for supporting their families and their cooperatives.

Some producers also profit from the indirect benefits of fair trade practices. Fair trade cooperatives create a space of solidarity and promote an entrepreneurial spirit among growers.

When growers feel like they have control over their own lives within the network of their cooperative, it can be very empowering.

Operating a profitable business allows growers to think about their future, rather than worrying about how they are going to survive in poverty.

Overall, farmers are satisfied with the current fair trade system, but some farmers, such as the Mazaronquiari group from CAC Pangoa, desire yet a higher price for their products in order to live a higher quality of life.

A component of trade is the social premium that buyers of fair trade goods pay to the producers or producer-groups of such goods.

An important factor of the fair trade social premium is that the producers or producer-groups decide where and how it is spent. These premiums usually go towards socioeconomic development, wherever the producers or producer-groups see fit.

Within producer-groups, the decisions about how the social premium will be spent is handled democratically, with transparency and participation. Producers and producer-groups spend this social premium to support socioeconomic development in a variety of ways.

One common way to spend the social premium of fair trade is to privately invest in public goods that infrastructure and the government are lacking in.

These public goods include environment initiatives, public schools, and water projects. At some point, all producer-groups re-invest their social premium back into their farms and businesses.

They buy capital, like trucks and machinery, and education for their members, like organic farming education. In terms of education, the social premium can be used to build and furnish schools too.

Most of the fair trade import organizations are members of, or certified by one of several national or international federations.

These federations coordinate, promote, and facilitate the work of fair trade organizations. The following are some of the largest:.

In , the first four federations listed above joined together as FINE , an informal association whose goal is to harmonize fair trade standards and guidelines, increase the quality and efficiency of fair trade monitoring systems, and advocate fair trade politically.

Student groups have also been increasingly active in the past years promoting fair trade products. The involvement of church organizations has been and continues to be an integral part of the Fair Trade movement:.

The first attempts to commercialize fair trade goods in Northern markets were initiated in the s and s by religious groups and various politically oriented non-governmental organizations NGOs.

The goods themselves had often no other function than to indicate that a donation had been made. The current fair trade movement was shaped in Europe in the s.

Fair trade during that period was often seen as a political gesture against neo-imperialism: The slogan at the time, "Trade not Aid", gained international recognition in when it was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD to put the emphasis on the establishment of fair trade relations with the developing world.

By , the oversized newsprint publication, the Whole Earth Catalog , was connecting thousands of specialized merchants, artisans, and scientists directly with consumers who were interested in supporting independent producers, with the goal of bypassing corporate retail and department stores.

The Whole Earth Catalog sought to balance the international free market by allowing direct purchasing of goods produced primarily in US and Canada, but also in Central and South America.

In , the first worldshop opened its doors in the Netherlands. The initiative aimed at bringing the principles of fair trade to the retail sector by selling almost exclusively goods produced under fair trade terms in "underdeveloped regions".

The first shop was run by volunteers and was so successful that dozens of similar shops soon went into business in the Benelux countries, Germany, and other Western European countries.

Throughout the s and s, important segments of the fair trade movement worked to find markets for products from countries that were excluded from the mainstream trading channels for political reasons.

Thousands of volunteers sold coffee from Angola and Nicaragua in worldshops, in the back of churches, from their homes, and from stands in public places, using the products as a vehicle to deliver their message: In the early s, Alternative Trading Organizations faced major challenges: The decline of segments of the handicrafts market forced fair trade supporters to rethink their business model and their goals.

Moreover, several fair trade supporters during this period were worried by the contemporary effect on small farmers of structural reforms in the agricultural sector as well as the fall in commodity prices.

In the subsequent years, fair trade agricultural commodities played an important role in the growth of many ATOs: The first fair trade agricultural products were tea and coffee, quickly followed by: Sales of fair trade products only really took off with the arrival of the first Fairtrade certification initiatives.

Although buoyed by ever growing sales, fair trade had been generally contained to relatively small worldshops scattered across Europe and to a lesser extent, North America.

Some felt that these shops were too disconnected from the rhythm and the lifestyle of contemporary developed societies. The inconvenience of going to them to buy only a product or two was too high even for the most dedicated customers.

The only way to increase sale opportunities was to start offering fair trade products where consumers normally shop, in large distribution channels.

The independent certification allowed the goods to be sold outside the worldshops and into the mainstream, reaching a larger consumer segment and boosting fair trade sales significantly.

The labeling initiative also allowed customers and distributors alike to track the origin of the goods to confirm that the products were really benefiting the producers at the end of the supply chain.

The concept caught on: FLO is an umbrella organization whose mission is to set the Fairtrade standards, support, inspect and certify disadvantaged producers, and harmonize the Fairtrade message across the movement.

The goals of the launch were to improve the visibility of the Mark on supermarket shelves, facilitate cross border trade, and simplify procedures for both producers and importers.

With the rise of ethical labeling, consumers are able to take moral responsibility for their economic decisions and actions.

This supports the notion of fair trade practices as "moral economies. These labeling practices place the burden of getting certification on the producers in the Global South, furthering inequality between the Global North and the Global South.

The process of securing certification is excessively burdensome and expensive. Northern consumers are able to just make a simple choice without these burdens and expenses.

Consumers of fair trade products usually make the intentional choice to purchase fair trade goods based on attitude, moral norms, perceived behavioral control, and social norms.

It is useful to include of measure of moral norms to improve the predictive power of intentions to buy fair trade over the basic predictors, like attitude and perceived behavioral control.

University students have significantly increased their consumption of fair trade products over the last several decades. Women college students have a more favorable attitude than men toward buying fair trade products and they feel more morally obligated to do so.

Women are also reported to have stronger intentions to buy fair trade products. Producers organize and strive for fair trade certification for several reasons, either through religious ties, wants for social justice, wants for autonomy, political liberalization, or simply because they want to be paid more for their labor efforts and products.

Farmers are more likely to identify with organic farming than fair trade farming practices because organic farming is a very visible way that these farmers are different than their neighbors and it actually influences the way they farm.

They place a significant importance on natural growing methods. Customary spelling of Fairtrade is one word when referring to the FLO product labeling system, see Fairtrade certification.

Fairtrade labelling usually simply Fairtrade or Fair Trade Certified in the United States is a certification system designed to allow consumers to identify goods which meet agreed standards.

The crops must be grown and harvested in accordance with the international Fair trade standards set by FLO International.

Fairtrade certification purports to guarantee not only fair prices, but also the principles of ethical purchasing. These principles include adherence to ILO agreements such as those banning child and slave labour , guaranteeing a safe workplace and the right to unionise, adherence to the United Nations charter of human rights , a fair price that covers the cost of production and facilitates social development, and protection and conservation of the environment.

The Fairtrade certification system also attempts to promote long-term business relationships between buyers and sellers, crop prefinancing, and greater transparency throughout the supply chain and more.

The Fairtrade certification system covers a growing range of products, including bananas, honey, coffee, oranges, Cocoa bean, cocoa, cotton, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables, juices, nuts and oil seeds, quinoa, rice, spices, sugar, tea, and wine.

Companies offering products that meet the Fairtrade standards may apply for licences to use one of the Fairtrade Certification Marks for those products.

The new Certification Mark is currently used worldwide with the exception of the United States. There is widespread confusion because the fair trade industry standards provided by Fairtrade International The Fairtrade Labelling Organization use the word "producer" in many different senses, often in the same specification document.

Sometimes it refers to farmers, sometimes to the primary cooperatives they belong to, to the secondary cooperatives that the primary cooperatives belong to, or to the tertiary cooperatives that the secondary cooperatives may belong to [68] but "Producer [also] means any entity that has been certified under the Fairtrade International Generic Fairtrade Standard for Small Producer Organizations, Generic Fairtrade Standard for Hired Labour Situations, or Generic Fairtrade Standard for Contract Production.

In an effort to complement the Fairtrade product certification system and allow most notably handcraft producers to also sell their products outside worldshops, the World Fair Trade Organization WFTO launched in a new Mark to identify fair trade organizations as opposed to products in the case of FLO International and Fairtrade.

Called the FTO Mark, [77] it allows consumers to recognize registered Fair Trade Organizations worldwide and seeks to guarantee that standards are being implemented regarding working conditions, wages, child labour, and the environment.

The FTO Mark offers Fair Trade Organizations including handcrafts producers definable standards which inform consumers, business partners, governments, and donors of the applicable trading standard.

An alternative trading organization ATO is usually a non-governmental organization NGO or mission-driven business aligned with the Fair Trade movement, aiming "to contribute to the alleviation of poverty in developing regions of the world by establishing a system of trade that allows marginalized producers in developing regions to gain access to developed markets".

Alternative trading organizations are often, but not always, based in political and religious groups, though their secular purpose precludes sectarian identification and evangelical activity.

Philosophically, the grassroots political-action agenda of these organizations associates them with progressive political causes active since the s: According to EFTA, the defining characteristic of alternative trading organizations is that of equal partnership and respect — partnership between the developing region producers and importers, shops, labelling organizations, and consumers.

Alternative trade "humanizes" the trade process — making the producer-consumer chain as short as possible so that consumers become aware of the culture, identity, and conditions in which producers live.

All actors are committed to the principle of alternative trade, the need for advocacy in their working relations and the importance of awareness-raising and advocacy work.

The concept of a Fair Trade school or Fair Trade university emerged from the United Kingdom , where the Fairtrade Foundation now maintains a list of colleges and schools that comply with the needed requirements to be labeled such a university.

They must have a written and implemented a school-wide Fair Trade Policy. The school or university must be dedicated to selling and using Fair Trade products.

They have to learn and educate about Fair Trade issues. Finally, the Fairtrade Foundation requires that schools promote Fair Trade not only within the school, but throughout the wider community.

A Fair Trade University is one that develops all aspects of Fair Trade practices in their coursework.

This push received positive reactions from faculty and students. To begin the process, the University as a whole agreed that it would need support from four institutional groups—faculty, staff, support staff, and students—to maximize support and educational efforts.

The University of Wisconsin- Oshkosh also offers many courses in many different disciplines that implement fair trade learning.

They offer a business course with a trip to Peru to visit coffee farmers, an environmental science class that discusses fair trade as a way for cleaner food systems, an English course that focuses on the Earth Charter and the application of fair trade principles, and several upper-level anthropology courses make fair trade the center of the class.

The University of California at San Diego understood the efforts of the Fairtrade Foundation in the UK, but they recognized they wanted to be more detailed about how their declaration as a Fair Trade University would make an actual change in the way on-campus franchises do business with the university.

They also required constant assessment and improvement. The main premise of being a Fair Trade University for the University of California at San Diego is the promise between the university and the students about the continual effort by the university to increase the accessibility of Fair Trade Certified food and drinks and to encourage sustainability in other ways, such as buying from local, organic farmers and decreasing waste.

Fair Trade Universities have been successful because they are a "feel good" movement. The movement also has an established history, making it a true movement rather just a fad.

Thirdly, Fair Trade Universities are effective because they raise awareness about an issue and offer a solution.

The solution is an easy one for college students to handle, just paying about five cents more for a cup of coffee or tea can make a real difference.

Worldshops or fair trade shops are specialized retail outlets offering and promoting fair trade products. Worldshops also typically organize various educational fair trade activities and play an active role in trade justice and other North-South political campaigns.

Worldshops are often not-for-profit organizations and run by locally based volunteer networks. Although the movement emerged in Europe and a vast majority of worldshops are still based on the continent, worldshops can also be found today in North America, Australia and New Zealand.

Usually, this means a producer in a developing country and consumers in industrialized countries.

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